Animal Defenders International

 

Animal Defenders International

Stop Circus Suffering USA: 8 References

Posted: 14 July 2008

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12 Munson, L., Koehler, J.W., Wilkinson, J.E. and Miller, R.E. (1998). Vesicular and ulcerative dermatopathy resembling superficial necrolytic dermatitis in captive black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis).
13 Montanè, J., Marco, I., Lûpez-Olvera, J., Manteca, X & Lavin, S. (2002). Transport Stress in Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) effect of a short-acting antipsychotic. Animal Welfare. 11: 405-417.
14 McGreevy, P. (2004). Equine behavior – a guide for veterinarians and equine scientists. Saunders. 323-324.
15 Stull, C.L. & Rodiek, A. V. (2000). Physiological responses of horses to 24 hours of transportation using a commercial van during summer conditions. Journal of Animal Science. 78: 1458-
16 Stull, C. L., Spier, S.J., Aldridge, B.M., Blanchard, M & Stott, J.L. (2004). Immunological response to long term transport stress in mature horses and effects of adaptogenic dietary supplementation
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17 Collins, M. N., Friend, T. H., Jousan, F. D, & Chen, S. C. (2000). Effects of density on displacement, falls, injuries and orientation during horse transportation. Applied Animal Behavior Science.
18 Stull, C. L. (1999). Responses of horses to trailer design, duration, and floor area during commercial transportation to slaughter. Journal of Animal Science. 77:2925-2933.
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22 Dixit, V.D., Marahrens, M. and Parvizi, N. (2001). Transport stress modulates adrenocorticotropin secretion from peripheral bovine lymphocytes. Journal of Animal Science. 79: 729-734.
23 Parrot, R.F., Lloyd, D. M. & Brown, D. (1999). Transport stress and exercise hyperthermia recorded in sheep by radiotelemetry. Animal Welfare. 8: 27-34.
24 Baldock, N.M. & Sibly, R.M. (1990). Effects of handling and transportation on the heart rate and behavior of sheep. Applied Animal Behavior Science. 28, 15-39.
25 Cockram, M.S., Kent, J.E., Goddard, P.J., Waren, N.K., McGlip, I.M., Jackson, R.E., Muwanga, G.M. & Prytherch. S. (1996). Effect of Space Allowance during transport on the behavioral and
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26 Hall, S.J.G. & Bradshaw, R.H. (1998). Welfare Aspects of the Transport by Road of Sheep and Pigs. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. 1 (3) 235-254.
27 Baucus, K.L., Ralston, S.L., Nockels, C.F., McKinnon, A.O. & Squires, E. L. (1990a). Effects of transportation on early embryonic death in mares. Journal of Animal Science. 68: 345-351.
28 Baucus, K. L., Squires, E.L., Ralston, S.L., McKinnon, A.O. and Nett, T. M. (1990b) Effect of transportation on the estrous cycle and concentrations of hormones in mares. Journal of Animal
29 Cassinello, G. & Pieters, I. (2000). Multi-male captive groups of endangered Dama Gazelle: Social rank, aggression and enclosure effects. Zoo Biology. 19 121-129.
30 Young. R.J. (2003). Environmental enrichment for captive animals. UFAW Animal Welfare Series. Blackwell Publishing, p. 2.
31 Schmid, J. (1995). Keeping circus elephants temporarily in paddocks: The effects on their behavior. Animal Welfare. 4: 87-101.
32 Friend, T. H. & Parker, M. L. (1999). The effect of penning versus picketing on stereotypic behavior of circus elephants. Applied Animal Behavior Science. 64:213-225.
33 Kirkden, R.D & Broom D. M. (2002). Individual differences in the causes of stereotypy in captive elephants. Commissioned by Animal Devenders International.
34 Bashaw, M.J., Tarou, L. R., Maki, T.S. & Maple, T.L. (2001). A survey assessment of variables related to stereotypy in captive giraffes and okapi. Applied Animal Behavior Science. 73 235-
35 Pollard, J. C. & Littlejohn, R. P. (1998). Effects of winter housing, exercise and dietary treatments on the behavior and welfare of red deer (cervus elaphus) hinds. Animal Welfare. 7: 45-56.
36 Carlstead, K., Fraser, J., Bennett, C., Kleiman, K. (1999). Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in US zoos: behavior, breeding success and mortality in relation to housing facilities. Zoo Biology.
37 Wells, A., Terio, K.A., Ziccardi, M.H. & Munson, L. (2004). The stress response to environmental change in captive cheetahs (acinonyx jubantus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 35(1)
38 Lyons, J., Young, R.J. & Daeg, J. M. (1997). The effects of physical characteristics of the environment and feeding regime on the behavior of captive felids. Zoo Biology. 16: 71-83
39 Carlstead, K., Brown, J. L. & Seidensticker. J. (1993). Behavioral and adrenocortical responses to environmental changes in leopard cats (Felis bengalensis). Zoo Biology. 12: 321-331.
40 Wielebnowski, N.C., Fletchall, N., Carlstead, K., Busso, J.M., Brown, J.L. (2002). Non-invasive assessment of adrenal activity associated with husbandry and behavioral factors in the North American
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43 Tarou, L.R., Bashaw, M.J. and Maple, T.L. (2000). Social attachment in giraffe: Response to social separation. Zoo Biology. 19: 41-51.
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45 Macdonald, D. (2004). The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press.
46 Herskin, M.S & Jensen, K. H. (2000). Effects of different degrees of social isolation on the behavior of weaned piglets kept for experimental purposes. Animal Welfare. 9: 237-249.
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62 Boyd Group Papers on The Use Of Non-Human Primates in Research and Testing June 2002 – Paper 2: Empirical evidence on the moral status of non-human primates, pp. 20-32
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1 Introduction
2 The Traveling Environment
3 Pilot Study: Animals in Traveling Circuses in the U.S.
4 The Scientific Evidence
5 The Animal Welfare Act
6 Recommendations for Action
7 Appendix: Public Opinion
8 References

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