Animal Defenders International

 

Animal Defenders International

Circuses

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The science on suffering: Husbandry and close confinement (3)

17 May 2006

3.1 Elephants Elephants in circuses are commonly shackled as a method of control and confinement, involving the chaining of one foreleg and one hind leg to the ground. This kind of fixation restricts...

The science on suffering: Husbandry and close confinement (4)

17 May 2006

3.2 Ungulates Ungulate species typically belong to one of two specialised feeding guilds, browsing or grazing, and in the wild they spend a significant percentage of their daily time budget eating....

The science on suffering: Husbandry and close confinement (5)

17 May 2006

Another study has found that captive black rhinoceroses appear predisposed to a skin disease which has not been identified in wild black rhinoceroses. This disease was found to show a link with periods...

The science on suffering: Husbandry and close confinement (6)

17 May 2006

3.3 Carnivores The scientific literature show that carnivores, in particular members of the cat family and bears, suffer as a result of captivity. This evidence has mainly been gathered in zoo studies,...

The science on suffering: Husbandry and close confinement (7)

17 May 2006

3.4 Domesticated Species Domestic animals such as budgerigars, cats, dogs and horses are kept in circuses. Although there are few scientific studies applicable to the circus situation these animals...

The science on suffering: Inappropriate social groupings and isolation (1)

17 May 2006

4. Inappropriate social groupings and isolation It is vitally important to house species in appropriate group structures. For many species social living provides more benefits than simply finding food...

The science on suffering: Inappropriate social groupings and isolation (2)

17 May 2006

4.2 Forced Proximity with other Animals In the wild tigers are solitary animals, coming together only for mating. A study on circus tigers describes how circuses often transport tigers in groups and...

The science on suffering: Inappropriate social groupings and isolation (3)

17 May 2006

4.4 Close Proximity of Predator and Prey Species Prey species show specific adaptations that allow recognition, avoidance and defence against predators (Apfelbach et al., 2005). However in the restrictions...

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