Animal Defenders International

 

Animal Defenders International

Circuses

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The science on suffering: Introduction (1)

17 May 2006

1. Introduction ADI believes, as a result of our empirical evidence from observation data, videotape and photographs, that animal suffering is inherent in the travelling circus environment. We have...

The science on suffering: Introduction (2)

17 May 2006

Measuring welfare is difficult, but in the scientific literature a number of possible welfare indicators can be found. For example, physiological indicators of a reduced welfare can be an elevated heart...

The science on suffering: Travelling (1)

17 May 2006

2. Travelling Frequent periods of transportation, and long periods in transporters, are the norm for animals in circuses. During a performance season, circuses can visit many different sites, all over...

The science on suffering: Travelling (2)

17 May 2006

2.2 Domestic Species There are a multitude of studies on the transportation of horses and of other animals commonly used in agriculture, and this data can be read across to the travelling circus situation....

The science on suffering: Travelling (3)

17 May 2006

2.2.2 Cattle Transport is thought to be one of the most potent stressors for cattle (Fazio et al., 2005). Stressors involved in the transportation of cattle result in: altered nutritional status and...

The science on suffering: Travelling (4)

17 May 2006

2.3 Effects of Transport on Reproduction Animals in circuses are transported throughout their life cycle, regardless of age, condition or reproductive status. Transporting animals whilst pregnant...

The science on suffering: Husbandry and close confinement (1)

17 May 2006

3. Husbandry and close confinement Poor husbandry in the circus may not be intentional, but it is to an extent unavoidable given the travelling nature of circuses and the temporary enclosures, living...

The science on suffering: Husbandry and close confinement (2)

17 May 2006

Excessive periods in transporters. Case Study: Zippo’s Circus. Observations 2 & 3 April 2006. Journey: Oxford to Blackheath, SE London. Actual journey time: 2 hours 4 horses, 3 ponies:...

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