Animal Defenders International

 

Animal Defenders International

Circuses

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The science on suffering: ADI recommendations

17 May 2006

ADI Recommendations The Animal Welfare Bill states that an animal’s needs shall be taken to include– (a) its need for a suitable environment, (b) its need for a suitable diet, (c) its need...

The science on suffering: Contents

17 May 2006

Contents 1. Introduction 2. Travelling 2.1 Exotic Species 2.2 Domestic Species 2.2.1 Horses 2.2.2 Cattle 2.2.3 Sheep 2.3 Effects of Transport on Reproduction 3. Husbandry and...

The science on suffering: Introduction (1)

17 May 2006

1. Introduction ADI believes, as a result of our empirical evidence from observation data, videotape and photographs, that animal suffering is inherent in the travelling circus environment. We have...

The science on suffering: Introduction (2)

17 May 2006

Measuring welfare is difficult, but in the scientific literature a number of possible welfare indicators can be found. For example, physiological indicators of a reduced welfare can be an elevated heart...

The science on suffering: Travelling (1)

17 May 2006

2. Travelling Frequent periods of transportation, and long periods in transporters, are the norm for animals in circuses. During a performance season, circuses can visit many different sites, all over...

The science on suffering: Travelling (2)

17 May 2006

2.2 Domestic Species There are a multitude of studies on the transportation of horses and of other animals commonly used in agriculture, and this data can be read across to the travelling circus situation....

The science on suffering: Travelling (3)

17 May 2006

2.2.2 Cattle Transport is thought to be one of the most potent stressors for cattle (Fazio et al., 2005). Stressors involved in the transportation of cattle result in: altered nutritional status and...

The science on suffering: Travelling (4)

17 May 2006

2.3 Effects of Transport on Reproduction Animals in circuses are transported throughout their life cycle, regardless of age, condition or reproductive status. Transporting animals whilst pregnant...

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